main | contents |
The greatest discovery of the millennium
It is a matter of discovery, which is outside of understanding of modern physics and its paradigm. It ñreates a basis of physics of XXI century and was predicted in the 30-th by the Russian physicist I. E. Tamm [1] and experimentally confirmed at the late 70-th by the Canadian physicists G. M. Graham and D. G. Lahoz [2]. (Lahoz’s name is placed in the big Russian five-languid encyclopedia under edition by Prohorov as one of authors of experiment on measurement of Abraham’s force) The discussed experiment have been executed on the highest technological level and also is a masterpiece of experimental art. Its detailed description quoted from the primary source [2] is given below.
“Observation of static electromagnetic angular momentum in vacuo
Our programme of measurement of forces related to electromagnetic momentum at low frequencies in matter has culminated in the first direct observation of free electromagnetic angular momentum created by quasistatic and independent electromagnetic fields E and B in the vacuum gap of a cylindrical capacitor. A resonant suspension is used to detect its motion. The observed changes in angular momentum agree with the classical theory within the error ~ 20%. This implies that the vacuum is the seat of something in motion whenever static fields are sat up with non-vanishing Poynting vector, as Maxwell and Poynting foresaw.
In establishing the electromagnetic nature of light, Maxwell opposed Weber’s “action at a distance” with his “dynamical” model of a vacuum with hidden matter in motion. His ideas were expanded by Poynting through the energy-flux theorem, but relativity theory initially dealt them a blow. However, despite Einstein’s explicit reconciliation with the aether there is currently some doubt about Maxwell’s medium. It was in a relativistic context that Minkowski found, as a purely mathematical consequence of Maxwell’s equations, that the Lorentz force density could be exactly expressed as the divergence of Maxwell’s tensor in vacuo, T_{vac} decreased by the rate of change of Poynting’s vector:
(1)
According to Maxwell- Poynting ideas, the last (Minkowski’s) term in equation (1) can be interpreted as a local reaction force acting on charges and currents when the vacuum surrounding them is loaded with electromagnetic momentum. Einstein and Laub observed that if equation (1) is integrated to all space, the term T_{vac} generates a vanishing surface integral and therefore the system of all Lorentz forces in the Universe needs to be supplemented with the quantity òe_{0}m_{0}¶/¶tExHdv to preserve Newton's third law. The opposite of this last vector is usually interpreted as the net unlocalised reaction on charges and currents due to radiation fields but, classically at least, it also represents a real reaction force even with induction fields.
We have made, to our knowledge, the first direct observation of the Minkowski term with induction fields E and B, which are confined to a small volume so that the local nature of the vacuum reaction term has also been demonstrated. The experiment consist of measurement of the axial torque on a cylindrical capacitor and its radial leads, located in an axial magnetic field.
Thus ExH is azimuthal inside the vacuum gap of the capacitor. The details of the capacitor and its mounting on a torsion oscillator are shown in Fig. 1. The capacitor and its leads form rigid and nearly closed electrical loop. The magnetic field and the capacitor voltage are time varied so that one Fourier component of their product is locked to the resonant frequency on the mechanical system, which is of sufficiently high Q (> 10^{5}) to yield a measurable oscillation amplitude when viewed by a m -radian sensitive optical lever. Knowledge of the resonant amplitude and frequency, moment of inertia and free decay time (with E = 0) yield the driving torque. The suspension system is located in the vacuum interspace of a liquid helium Devar. The magnetic field, uniform to ~2%, is supplied by a superconducting solenoid. … Maximum amplitudes are 2x10^{6 } V/m (for E) and 0.3 T (for m _{0}H).
Measured torques are compared in table 1 with calculated torques acting on the suspension which arise entirely from the net Lorenz force on the current I in the radial leads which charges the vacuum component of the suspended capacitor, that is, a torque Im _{0}H(a^{2} – b^{2})/2, where a and b are the outer and inner radii on the capacitor cylinders (5.5 and 4.5 mm).
Table 1. Calculated and observed torque amplitude for typical field amplitudes (the electric field is given at the inner electrode) |
|||
E_{0} MVm^{-1} |
B_{0} T |
T_{0,calc} pNm |
T_{0,obs} pNm |
0.58 0.64 1.3 1.7 2.3 |
0.13 0.22 0.22 0.19 0.22 |
2.0 3.5 7.1 7.9 12.4 |
1.8 4.4 8.5 8.7 17.0 |
Here I has been corrected the known stray capacitance to earth external to the suspension (~ 1 pF effective) and for the fraction of conducting current which corresponds to polarization current in the dielectric and plates, as that part corresponds to a closed loop of current contributing no torque. Thus I corresponds to charging a pure vacuum capacitance C_{0} only. C_{0}_{ }was calculated from the geometry (4.7 pF) and also by measuring the effect of removing one end plate (4.9 pF). The error in the calculated torque is mainly due to the uncertainly in the corrections for stray capacitance. It is estimated to be ~ 10%. The systematic trend in the ratio of T_{calc} to T_{obs} can be understood in terms of a small, amplitude dependent, non-linearity in the equation of motion, due to magnetic field dependence of the damping, which results in imperfect cancellation of the resonant noise at high fields. Consequently, the tabulated discrepancies are within an estimated total error of ~ 20%.
Although this result is to be expected by classical electromagnetism, it leads inexorably to the acceptance of the physical reality of the Poynting vector, even though E and H arise from independent sources. This can be seen by seeking the system on which the third law reaction torque must act. It can be neither the external electrical circuit, as the loop is essentially closed within the suspension, nor in the magnet, which, as a coil, cannot receive an axial torque (force parallel to its own current). For angular momentum conservation, the loop is an isolated system and the reaction torque can only be considered as a change in electromagnetic angular momentum carried by the fields themselves in the region of their co-existence, that is, within the vacuum gap of the capacitor. As I = C_{0}dV/dt, the calculated torque is exactly equal to the volume integral of rx¶ (ExH)/¶ tc^{2}, so that the complete reaction is accounted for by the assignment of a real angular momentum density to rx(ExH)/c^{2}.
It is remarkable that no known ‘particle’ can be identified as the agent of the observed electromagnetic angular momentum in exchange with the mechanical detector. However, this does not imply that a new entity has to be introduced, because the concept of energy-momentum carried by macroscopically quasistatic electromagnetic field is already contained in Maxwell’s equations. According to these and as directly implied by our experimental result, permanent magnets and electrets can be used to build a flywheel of electromagnetic energy steadily flowing in circles in the vacuum gap of a capacitor as if Maxwell’s medium were endowed with a property corresponding to superfluidity. The certainly new insight is that the quasistatic is not merely an unobservable medium of interaction between matter and matter: it has in fact the mechanical properties, postulated by Maxwell, in contradistinction to any “action at a distance” theory.
This experiment is continuing and a complete report will be published elsewhere.”
The analysis of results of experiment from a position of the conservation energy law
In spite of the fact that Graham’s and Lahoz’s experiment has imperishable scientific value, it has not gained of the scientific community yet. The reason is very simple. The explanation based on representations of modern physics reduces the unique phenomenon observed in the experiment to a lavel of trivial interaction of electromagnetic field with substance. However, according to the convincing and strict proof (see below) this explanation is erroneous because directly contradicts the conservation energy law.
Let's proceed to business. It is known, that the electromagnetic field having a Poynting’s vector S has density of energy W, and S = cwn, where n - an unit vector along direction S. Passing to projections S and n on a direction n, we shall receive S = cw, from here w= EH/c. It means, that in Graham’s and Lahoz’s experiment between the capacitor plates there is not only energy of an electric field W_{E} = CU2/2, where C - capacity of the condenser, U - a voltage on its plates, but also additional energy W_{EH}, dependent on magnitude of a magnetic field in which this capasitor is placed (energy of a magnetic field, by virtue of a constancy of the last, is not taken into account).
From here, the relation of additional (electromagnetic) energy to electric will be equal:
where E_{0} = U(R_{2} – R_{1}) - magnitude of an effective electric field between plates of the capacitor. In the Graham’s and Lahoz’s experiment E_{0} (MVm-1) accepted values 0.58, 0.64, 1.3, 1.7, 2.3; B_{0 } (T) - accordingly 0.13, 0.22, 0.22, 0.19, 0.22. From here excess of electromagnetic energy in relation to electric has made accordingly 134, 244, 102, 67, 57 times. The frequency of change of the voltage on the capacitor, was ~ 240 Hz. It means, that energy of an electromagnetic field of 480 times per one second was nulled and again reached the maximum, acting, by virtue of isolation of system, from the power supply. As the voltage was determined by the power supply, the charge current of the capacitor, should be also more in the identical proportion. Hence, the effective capacity should increase repeatedly. Really, full energy of the field in the capacitor W_{EH} + W_{E} would be equal, C*U2/2, where C* = C (2cB_{0}/E_{0} + 1) – the effective capacity; I* = I (2cB_{0}/E_{0} + 1) - the effective current. It is easy to see, that at absence of the magnetic field (B_{0} = 0) the effective current will be equal to the normal charging current of the capacitor I. The increase of the current would result, in turn, in increase of the Lorentz’s force and, as consequence, the moment of this force. Followed for it, on the average, more than the hundredfold increase of a deviation light spot would be immediately registered by experimenters who observed the effect adequate to the zero value electromagnetic components. Hence, with necessity the conclusion follows, that density of energy, and, hence, a momentum of the stationary (quasistationary) an electromagnetic field are always equal to zero. This conclusion could be made and, not waiting the experiment of Graham and Lahoz. If the capacity depend on a magnetic field in which it is placed, it already for a long time would let about itself know at adjustment of entrance contours of radio equipment; in hundreds and thousand times would change resonant frequencies. Besides, according to direct exact calculations (the russian version see on the sites http://www.tts.lt/~nara/chast3.htm, http://www.tts.lt/~nara/md_force/magnet.html), change of a magnetic field at constant electric results in infringement of equality between the parameter, named a momentum of static fields, and mechanical momentum (for the true momentum the equality is kept always). Thus, the stationary electromagnetic fields do not transfer any energy and momentum. A flywheel does not exist in the reality. At the same time, the key role of experiment of Graham and Lahoz is indisputable, as does not leave any opportunity to deny existence of the discussed phenomenon.
It is possible definitely to assert the doubtless fact: All modern physical science may not explain the reason of theoretically proved and experimentally observably phenomenon of getting of a mechanical momentum (angular momentum) of the closed, on modern representations, system, containing electric charges and magnetic elements. In other words, the law of conservation of angular momentum of the substance and the field does not take place. According to the detailed theoretical research, the received conclusion is true also for the linear momentrum ( see in Russian). From here the conclusion follows, the considered system (the capacitor + a magnet + the electric and the magnetic fields) is not closed and it interact with an unknown matter which is neither substance nor a field. The number of the known kinds of a matter is very small to provide performance of the known fundamental laws of the nature. The nature has any kinds of matter, not reduced to a substance and a field.
Everyone realized the aforesaid, simultaneously realizes also a grip of crisis of modern physics. The overcoming of this crisis does not require introduction of any new hypotheses. It is connected to consecutive application of deeply developed principles of the classical electrodynamics and general physics. The new physics, in
its fundamental principles, is already created (see this site). It
completely destroys the darkness introduced in the physics by the theory of a relativity and the quantum mechanics.
1. È.Å.Òàìì.
Îñíîâû òåîðèè ýëåêòðè÷åñòâà. Èçäàòåëüñòâî
òåõíèêî-òåîðåòè÷åñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû, Ì.,”ÍÀÓÊÀ”,
1989, ñ. 404-408, 411, 241.
I E Tamm. Fundamentals of
Electricity Theory, Moscow, Publishing House “Nauka”, 1989, p.404-408, 411,
241.
2. M.Graham, D.G.Lahoz. Nature, 285, 154, 1980.
G. P. Ivanov, 30.11.2002